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塑料餐盒中邻苯二甲酸酯的迁移风险研究

蓝敏怡 李会茹 应光国

蓝敏怡, 李会茹, 应光国. 塑料餐盒中邻苯二甲酸酯的迁移风险研究[J]. 华南师范大学学报(自然科学版), 2022, 54(2): 52-62. doi: 10.6054/j.jscnun.2022026
引用本文: 蓝敏怡, 李会茹, 应光国. 塑料餐盒中邻苯二甲酸酯的迁移风险研究[J]. 华南师范大学学报(自然科学版), 2022, 54(2): 52-62. doi: 10.6054/j.jscnun.2022026
LAN Minyi, LI Huiru, YING Guangguo. On the Migration Risk of Phthalates in Plastic Containers[J]. Journal of South China normal University (Natural Science Edition), 2022, 54(2): 52-62. doi: 10.6054/j.jscnun.2022026
Citation: LAN Minyi, LI Huiru, YING Guangguo. On the Migration Risk of Phthalates in Plastic Containers[J]. Journal of South China normal University (Natural Science Edition), 2022, 54(2): 52-62. doi: 10.6054/j.jscnun.2022026

塑料餐盒中邻苯二甲酸酯的迁移风险研究

doi: 10.6054/j.jscnun.2022026
基金项目: 

广东省化学品污染与环境安全重点实验室 2019B030301008

详细信息
    通讯作者:

    应光国,Email:guangguo.ying@scnu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: X502

On the Migration Risk of Phthalates in Plastic Containers

  • 摘要: 测定市售的一次性塑料餐盒中邻苯二甲酸酯的质量分数和探究其向食品中的浸出规律,由此评估对人体造成的健康风险。以聚丙烯(PP)塑料餐盒为研究对象,采用气相色谱-质谱法对样品中16种邻苯二甲酸酯(PAEs)的质量分数进行检测;并依据GB/T 23296.1—2009要求,选择水、4%乙酸、10%乙醇和异辛烷为食品模拟物,考察塑料餐盒中PAEs的浸出率随时间和温度的变化情况,运用美国环保署(U.S. EPA)推荐的健康风险评估模型评价由此造成的健康风险。16种PAEs中邻苯二甲酸二乙酯(DEP)、邻苯二甲酸二异丁酯(DIBP)、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)、邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基)己酯(DEHP)、邻苯二甲酸二苯酯(DPhP)、邻苯二甲酸二辛酯(DNOP)的检出率分别为100%、100%、78%、78%、92%、85%,质量分数范围分别为0.140~0.829、0.237~1.676、ND~0.995、ND~2.302、ND~1.714、ND~0.213 mg/g;但在4种食品模拟物浸出实验中仅检出4种PAEs(DEP、DBP、DIBP、DEHP),浸出率从大到小的顺序为:异辛烷、10%乙醇、4%乙酸、水;温度越高,时间越长,浸出率越大。暴露评估健康风险结果显示:在25、40、55 ℃下,人群对浸出PAEs日暴露量的致癌风险为1.09×10-8、4.52×10-8、1.83×10-7;总非致癌风险分别为1.10×10-4、3.62×10-4、1.21×10-3。结果表明:PAEs可通过与塑料餐盒接触迁移至食物中,但由此造成的健康风险在U.S. EPA推荐的人群可接受水平范围内。
  • 图  1  PAEs标准品在SIM模式下的色谱图

    Figure  1.  The chromatogram of PAE solution reference material in the SIM mode

    图  2  塑料餐盒中PAEs相关化合物的贡献率

    Figure  2.  The proportion of PAEs-related compounds in plastic containers

    图  3  不同食品模拟物中PAEs的迁移率

    Figure  3.  The migration rate of PAEs in different food simulators

    图  4  不同温度下PAEs的迁移率

    Figure  4.  The migration rate of PAEs at different temperatures

    表  1  食品模拟物的选择

    Table  1.   The selection of food simulants

    食品类型 食品模拟物
    水性食品(pH>4.5) 蒸馏水
    酸性食品(pH≤4.5的水性食品) 4%(体积分数)乙酸
    酒精食品 10%(体积分数)乙醇
    脂肪食品 异辛烷
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  PAEs的保留时间和离子质荷比

    Table  2.   The retention time and ion mass charge ratio of PAEs

    化合物 CAS号 保留时间/min 定量离子质荷比(m/z) 定性离子质荷比(m/z)
    DMP 131-11-3 7.37 163 77/194/133
    DEP 84-66-2 8.72 149 177/105/222
    DIBP 84-69-5 11.51 149 223/205/104
    DBP 84-74-2 12.49 149 223/104/167
    DMEP 117-82-8 12.85 149 59/149/104/176
    BMPP 146-50-9 13.62 149 167/85/251
    DEEP 605-54-9 14.01 149 72/104/193
    DPP 131-18-0 14.40 149 237/219/104
    DHXP 84-75-3 16.23 149 251/104/233
    BBP 85-68-7 16.32 149 91/206/104
    DBEP 117-83-9 17.38 149 101/85/193
    DCHP 84-61-7 17.84 149 167/249/104
    DEHP 117-81-7 17.94 149 167/279/113
    DPhP 84-62-8 18.09 225 77/104/153
    DNOP 117-84-0 19.57 149 279/104/261
    DNP 84-76-4 21.09 149 293/167/275
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  塑料餐盒中PAEs的质量分数

    Table  3.   The concentration of PAEs in plastic containers  mg/kg

    样品 DMP DEP DIBP DBP DMEP BMPP DEEP DPP DHXP BBP DBEP DCHP DEHP DPhP DNOP DNP
    1 ND 0.177±0.013 1.676±0.861 0.190±0.038 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 0.201±0.033 1.327±0.162 0.121±0.013 ND
    2 ND 0.642±0.022 1.032±0.321 0.254±0.006 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 0.131±0.011 1.094±0.055 0.115±0.012 ND
    3 ND 0.436±0.048 0.944±0.639 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 0.162±0.020 1.653±0.081 0.094±0.037 ND
    4 ND 0.576±0.042 0.761±0.224 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.301±0.202 ND ND
    5 ND 0.829±0.062 0.237±0.398 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.664±0.138 0.038±0.003 ND
    6 ND 0.140±0.017 1.113±0.276 0.238±0.019 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 0.851±0.053 1.714±0.062 0.147±0.012 ND
    7 ND 0.385±0.008 0.773±0.555 0.244±0.047 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 0.092±0.012 0.843±0.059 0.060±0.006 ND
    8 ND 0.198±0.012 0.943±0.549 0.276±0.076 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 0.148±0.042 0.957±0.060 0.105±0.027 ND
    9 ND 0.257±0.014 1.115±0.482 0.138±0.010 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 0.509±0.045 ND 0.075±0.005 ND
    10 ND 0.313±0.009 0.681±0.060 0.560±0.067 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 0.561±0.055 0.611±0.039 0.101±0.009 ND
    11 ND 0.204±0.010 0.675±0.093 0.812±0.117 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 0.554±0.004 0.761±0.060 0.092±0.003 ND
    12 ND 0.217±0.021 1.609±0.129 0.995±0.060 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 2.302±0.602 1.018±0.102 ND ND
    13 ND 0.186±0.016 0.842±0.075 0.227±0.022 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.239±0.168 0.685±0.089 0.213±0.028 ND
    14 ND 0.193±0.029 0.523±0.037 0.040±0.020 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 0.305±0.129 0.416±0.015 0.112±0.020 ND
    注:“ND”表示样品中未检出PAEs类化合物。表中数据为平均值±标准差(n=3)。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同温度下36 h时PAEs在不同食品模拟物中的浸出率

    Table  4.   The migration rate of PAEs in different food simulators at different temperatures for 36 h  %

    温度/℃ 食品模拟物 DEP DIBP DBP DEHP
    25 0.13 0.08 0.59 0.06
    4%乙酸 0.14 0.09 0.98 0.07
    10%乙醇 0.21 0.33 1.58 0.13
    异辛烷 0.36 0.11 5.49 0.09
    40 0.41 0.80 1.3 0.27
    4%乙酸 0.45 1.18 1.44 0.26
    10%乙醇 0.59 1.84 2.22 0.28
    异辛烷 1.85 3.67 11.84 0.35
    55 1.39 0.87 1.29 0.11
    4%乙酸 1.32 1.15 1.57 0.08
    10%乙醇 1.41 0.94 2.08 0.12
    异辛烷 5.24 21.32 75.76 7.34
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  6种优先控制PAEs的TDI

    Table  5.   The TDI of 6 PAEs under priority control

    PAEs DMP DEP DBP BBP DEHP DNOP
    CAS号 131-11-3 84-66-2 84-74-2 85-68-7 117-81-7 117-84-0
    参考剂量/(μg·(kg·d)-1) 10 000 800 100 200 20 3 000
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  塑料餐盒中PAEs的日暴露量

    Table  6.   The daily exposure of PAEs in plastic containers

    PAEs EDI/(ng·L-1)
    25 ℃ 40 ℃ 55 ℃
    DMP 0.242 0.544 1.292
    DEP 0.186 0.767 2.353
    DIBP 0.668 15.621 32.775
    DBP 10.338 20.556 87.976
    DEHP 0.782 3.226 13.073
    总计 12.216 40.714 137.469
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  塑料餐盒中PAEs的健康风险

    Table  7.   The health risk of PAES in plastic containers

    健康风险 PAEs 温度条件
    25 ℃ 40 ℃ 55 ℃
    非致癌 DIBP 6.68×10-6 1.56×10-4 3.28×10-4
    DBP 1.03×10-4 2.06×10-4 8.80×10-4
    DEHP 3.91×10-5 1.61×10-4 6.54×10-4
    致癌 DEHP 1.09×10-8 4.52×10-8 1.83×10-7
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-05-10
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-05-12
  • 刊出日期:  2022-04-25

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