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柳江流域大型底栖动物群落结构及其与水质因子的关系

李鑫 邓培雁 刘威

李鑫, 邓培雁, 刘威. 柳江流域大型底栖动物群落结构及其与水质因子的关系[J]. 华南师范大学学报(自然科学版), 2021, 53(5): 53-61. doi: 10.6054/j.jscnun.2021075
引用本文: 李鑫, 邓培雁, 刘威. 柳江流域大型底栖动物群落结构及其与水质因子的关系[J]. 华南师范大学学报(自然科学版), 2021, 53(5): 53-61. doi: 10.6054/j.jscnun.2021075
LI Xin, DENG Peiyan, LIU Wei. The Macrobenthos Community Structure and Its Relationships with Water Quality Factors in the Liujiang River Basin[J]. Journal of South China normal University (Natural Science Edition), 2021, 53(5): 53-61. doi: 10.6054/j.jscnun.2021075
Citation: LI Xin, DENG Peiyan, LIU Wei. The Macrobenthos Community Structure and Its Relationships with Water Quality Factors in the Liujiang River Basin[J]. Journal of South China normal University (Natural Science Edition), 2021, 53(5): 53-61. doi: 10.6054/j.jscnun.2021075

柳江流域大型底栖动物群落结构及其与水质因子的关系

doi: 10.6054/j.jscnun.2021075
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 52000081

详细信息
    通讯作者:

    邓培雁,Email:dpy213@126.com

  • 中图分类号: X835

The Macrobenthos Community Structure and Its Relationships with Water Quality Factors in the Liujiang River Basin

  • 摘要: 以柳江流域23个点位为例,研究了不同水文季节(3月和6月)水质因子(DO、CODMn、NH3-N、As、Hg、Cd、Pb)对底栖动物群落结构的影响,2次调查共鉴定出底栖动物4门7纲16目54科68属(种),种类相似系数为83.76%,物种丰富度表现为枯水期略高于丰水期,底栖动物优势种在枯、丰水期分别有4种和2种,具有明显的季节演替. DCA和TWINSPAN分析结果显示:柳江流域底栖动物群落结构在时空分布上存在一定差异,主要表现为枯、丰水期均有3个不同的底栖动物类群大致依次分布在该流域干流及支流的源头、中上游及下游,群落内指示物种呈现出由清洁种逐渐过渡到耐污种的变化. 指示物种分析结果(ISA)显示:在枯水期,共有8种底栖动物能作为柳江源头和大环江上游群落的指示种,分别为四节蜉属(Baetis sp.)、锯形蜉(Serratella sp.)、溪泥甲一属(Zaitzevia sp.)、短脉纹石娥属(Cheumatopsyche sp.)、蜗虫(Dugesia sp.)、朝大蚊属(Antocha)、摇蚊属(Chironomus sp.)和细蜉属(Caenis sp.),其他类群无显著指示种;在丰水期,共有5种底栖动物能作为群落划分的指示种,其中,方格短沟蜷(Semisulcospira cancellata)、钉螺(Oncomelania sp.)是柳江中上游的指示种,汉森安春蜓(Amphigomphus hansoni)、河蚬(Corbicula fluminea)、卷扁螺(Gyraulus compressus)是柳江下游的指示种. CCA分析结果显示:CODMn和DO是枯、丰水期均对柳江流域底栖动物群落分布有重要影响的水质驱动因子,而重金属因子(Cd、Pb、Hg)在枯水期对底栖动物分布影响较大, NH3-N在丰水期对底栖动物分布影响较大.
  • 图  1  柳江采样点分布图

    Figure  1.  The location of sampling sites in the Liujiang River basin

    图  2  柳江各样点底栖动物个体总数分布图

    Figure  2.  The amounts of macrobenthos in the Liujiang River basin

    图  3  柳江各样点底栖动物物种丰富度分布图

    Figure  3.  The species richness of macrobenthos in the Liujiang River basin

    图  4  柳江流域大型底栖动物采样点在DCA轴上的分布

    Figure  4.  The distribution of sampling sites of Liujiang River basin in the DCA

    图  5  柳江流域环境因子与物种组成的CCA排序图(枯水期)

    Figure  5.  The CCA biplot of environmental variables and species composition in the Liujiang River basin (dry season)

    1: Cheumatopsyche sp.; 2: Macromidae; 3: Antocha; 4: Simulium sp.; 5: Chironomus sp.; 6: Epeorus sp.; 7: Choroterpes sp.; 8: Baetis sp.; 9: Afronurus rubromaculata; 10: Labiobaetis ancoralis; 11: Labiobaetis atrebatinus orientalis ; 12: Procloeon sp.; 13: Caenis sp.; 14: Serratella sp.; 15: Micronecta; 16: Zaitzevia sp.; 17: Protohermes sp.; 18: Sulcospira cf hainanensis; 19: Sinotaia sp.; 20: Stenothyra sp.; 21: Radix sp.; 22: Semisulcospira sp.; 23: Tarebia granifera ; 24: Physa sp.; 25: Galba sp.; 26: Limnoperna lacustris; 27: Macrobrachium sp.; 28: caridina sp.; 29: Corbicula fluminea; 30: Glossiphonia sp.; 31: Dugesia sp.

    图  6  柳江流域环境因子与物种组成的CCA排序图(丰水期)

    Figure  6.  The CCA biplot of environmental variables and species composition in the Liujiang River basin (wet season)

    1: Cheumatopsyche sp2; 2: Amphigomphus hansoni; 3: Leptogomphus intermedius; 4: Baetis sp.; 5: Labiobaetis ancoralis; 6: Labiobaetis atrebatinus orientalis; 7: Habrophlebiodes gilliesi; 8: Ordobrevia sp.; 9: Bezzia sp.; 10: Culex sp.; 11: Chironomussp.; 12: Micronecta sp.; 13: Micronecta quadristrigata; 14: Neocaridina serrata; 15: Corbicula fluminea; 16: Galba pervia; 17: Gyraulus compressus; 18: Sinotaia sp.; 19: Bellamya sp.; 20: Physa acuta; 21: Semisulcospira cancellata; 22: Melanodies sp.; 23: Tarebia granifera; 24: Oncomelania sp.; 25: Radix auricularia; 26: Radix swinhoei.

    表  1  柳江流域采样点地理位置分布表

    Table  1.   The locations of sampling sites in the Liujiang River basin

    采样点 河流 干/支流 经度 纬度 采样点 河流 干/支流 经度 纬度
    S1 都柳江 干流 107°35.29′ 25°51.49′ S13 大环江 支流 108°18.14′ 24°53.46′
    S2 都柳江 干流 108°30.46′ 25°55.13′ S14 大环江 支流 108°09.10′ 24°43.34′
    S3 都柳江 干流 108°54.16′ 25°44.37′ S15 大环江 支流 108°08.49′ 24°42.51′
    S4 都柳江 干流 109°24.23′ 25°42.21′ S16 小环江 支流 108°28.04′ 24°34.24′
    S5 融江 干流 109°23.51′ 25°13.12′ S17 龙江 支流 108°28.12′ 24°34.04′
    S6 融江 干流 109°15.12′ 25°03.15′ S18 龙江 支流 108°39.13′ 24°29.60′
    S7 打狗河 支流 107°46.57′ 25°34.49′ S19 柳江 干流 109°10.23′ 24°40.15′
    S8 打狗河 支流 107°53.22′ 25°25.04′ S20 柳江 干流 109°15.03′ 24°31.45′
    S9 龙江 支流 107°51.33′ 24°50.05′ S21 柳江 干流 109°23.53′ 24°19.47′
    S10 龙江 支流 107°55.02′ 24°44.56′ S22 柳江 干流 109°40.19′ 23°57.21′
    S11 大环江 支流 108°15.19′ 25°23.26′ S23 柳江 干流 109°31.52′ 23°50.30′
    S12 大环江 支流 108°12.21′ 50°00.54′
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  柳江流域大型底栖无脊椎动物优势种组成(Y≥0.02)

    Table  2.   The composition of dominant macrobenthos species in the Liujiang River basin(Y≥0.02)

    时期 种类 占总个数的比例Pi/% 出现频率fi/% 优势度Y
    枯水期 萝卜螺属Radix 7.64 69.57 0.053
    摇蚊属Chironomus 5.13 43.48 0.022
    小划蝽属Micronecta 16.80 39.13 0.066
    囊螺属Physa 6.60 39.13 0.026
    丰水期 新米虾属Neocaridina 10.15 47.83 0.049
    小划蝽属Micronecta 14.75 21.74 0.032
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  柳江流域大型底栖动物主要群落分布类型

    Table  3.   The distribution types of main macrobenthic communities in the Liujiang River basin

    时间 类群 采样点位
    枯水期 A1 S7、S8、S12、S13、S14、S15、S19、S22
    A2 S2、S3、S4、S5、S6、S9、S10、S16、S17、S18、S20、S21、S23
    A3 S1、S11
    丰水期 B1 S7、S11、S12、S13、S14、S19、S21、S22、S23
    B2 S2、S3、S4、S5、S6、S16、S17
    B3 S1、S8、S15
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  柳江大型底栖动物群落划分及指示物种分析

    Table  4.   The community division of macrobenthos in the Liujiang River basin and the indicator species analysis

    时期 类群 指示种 指示值 P
    枯水期 A3 Baetis sp. 1.000 0.005**
    Serratella sp. 1.000 0.005**
    Zaitzeviasp. 1.000 0.005**
    Cheumatopsyche sp. 0.999 0.005**
    Dugesia sp. 0.967 0.005**
    Antocha 0.994 0.001**
    Chironomus sp. 0.918 0.019*
    Caenis sp. 0.705 0.048*
    丰水期 B2 Semisulcospira cancellata 0.845 0.010**
    Oncomelania sp. 0.756 0.032*
    B3 Amphigomphus hansoni 0.816 0.018*
    Corbicula fluminea 0.816 0.012*
    Gyraulus compressus 0.816 0.018*
    注: * *表示P<0.01,*表示P<0.05.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  柳江流域水质理化因子特征(平均值±标准差)

    Table  5.   The characteristics of water quality factors in the Liujiang River basin(Mean±SD)

    水质因子的质量浓度 枯水期 丰水期 P
    A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3
    ρ(DO)/(mg·L-1) 7.67±1.58 8.29±0.89 9.21±0.21 8.15±1.19 10.37±0.85 10.46±0.80 11.71±1.19 10.61±0.96 0.000**
    ρ(CODMn)/(mg·L-1) 1.65±0.59 1.37±0.42 1.05±0.21 1.44±0.49 1.96±0.42 1.51±0.29 1.90±0.44 1.78±0.42 0.003**
    ρ(NH3-N)/(mg·L-1) 0.15±0.14 0.27±0.62 0.02±0.02 0.21±0.47 0.29±0.21 0.18±0.14 0.24±0.20 0.24±0.18 0.009**
    ρ(As)/(μg·L-1) 8.630±8.314 6.460±7.881 11.000±4.243 7.609±7.674 1.956±1.528 1.437±0.506 1.057±0.501 1.623±1.128 0.228
    ρ(Hg)/(μg·L-1) 0.025±0.055 0.007±0.017 0.013±0.035 0.032±0.023 0.033±0.024 0.020±0.020 0.031±0.022 0.000**
    ρ(Cd)/(μg·L-1) 0.109±0.308 0.02±0.038 0.049±0.181 0.314±0.323 0.181±0.077 0.207±0.139 0.248±0.234 0.000**
    ρ(Pb)/(μg·L-1) 2.611±2.639 1.509±1.323 1.26±0.438 1.870±1.868 15.732±36.913 3.126±0.935 6.060±4.031 9.561±25.395 0.001**
    注: * *表示P<0.01,*表示P<0.05.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  CCA排序轴对应的特征值、物种-水质因子相关性及累积变化率

    Table  6.   The Eigenvalues, species-environment correlation and changing percentages for CCA axis

    时期 排序轴 特征值 物种-水质因子相关性 物种数据累积变化率/% 物种-水质因子关系累积变化率/%
    枯水期 1 0.579 0.894 8.5 23.6
    2 0.549 0.901 16.5 45.9
    3 0.411 0.854 22.5 62.7
    4 0.370 0.891 28.0 77.7
    丰水期 1 0.582 0.909 11.8 32.7
    2 0.408 0.851 20.1 55.6
    3 0.310 0.867 26.4 73.0
    4 0.216 0.805 30.8 85.1
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  CCA前2轴与水质因子相关系数

    Table  7.   The correlations between water quality factors and the first two axes of CCA

    水质因子 枯水期 丰水期
    轴1 轴2 轴1 轴2
    DO -0.813 8 -0.032 9 -0.520 9 -0.607 0
    CODMn 0.104 4 0.852 0 -0.818 1 0.013 7
    NH3-N 0.233 6 0.097 5 0.160 7 0.346 2
    As 0.271 0 -0.054 8 0.259 9 0.217 4
    Hg 0.057 7 0.433 3
    Cd 0.046 2 0.572 0 0.115 3 0.287 9
    Pb 0.246 0 0.461 6 -0.008 7 0.007 7
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-01-19
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-11-11
  • 刊出日期:  2021-10-25

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