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化工园区水环境中优控化学品的污染特征及风险评估

刘强 陈晓雯 刘嘉烈 卓丽 蔡凤珊 严骁 胡立新 石运刚

刘强, 陈晓雯, 刘嘉烈, 卓丽, 蔡凤珊, 严骁, 胡立新, 石运刚. 化工园区水环境中优控化学品的污染特征及风险评估[J]. 华南师范大学学报(自然科学版), 2019, 51(5): 58-65. doi: 10.6054/j.jscnun.2019085
引用本文: 刘强, 陈晓雯, 刘嘉烈, 卓丽, 蔡凤珊, 严骁, 胡立新, 石运刚. 化工园区水环境中优控化学品的污染特征及风险评估[J]. 华南师范大学学报(自然科学版), 2019, 51(5): 58-65. doi: 10.6054/j.jscnun.2019085
LIU Qiang, CHEN Xiaowen, LIU Jialie, ZHUO Li, CAI Fengshan, YAN Xiao, HU Lixin, SHI Yungang. Characteristics and Risk Assessment of Priority-Controlled Chemicals in Water Environment of Chemical Industrial Parks[J]. Journal of South China normal University (Natural Science Edition), 2019, 51(5): 58-65. doi: 10.6054/j.jscnun.2019085
Citation: LIU Qiang, CHEN Xiaowen, LIU Jialie, ZHUO Li, CAI Fengshan, YAN Xiao, HU Lixin, SHI Yungang. Characteristics and Risk Assessment of Priority-Controlled Chemicals in Water Environment of Chemical Industrial Parks[J]. Journal of South China normal University (Natural Science Edition), 2019, 51(5): 58-65. doi: 10.6054/j.jscnun.2019085

化工园区水环境中优控化学品的污染特征及风险评估

doi: 10.6054/j.jscnun.2019085
基金项目: 

重庆市环境科学技术研究项目 3F042A407E

重庆市环境科学技术研究项目 F21764EF79

详细信息
    通讯作者:

    石运刚,高级工程师,Email:sygonline@sina.com

  • 中图分类号: X522

Characteristics and Risk Assessment of Priority-Controlled Chemicals in Water Environment of Chemical Industrial Parks

  • 摘要: 为了更好地掌握化工园区生产运行过程中排放的主要污染物在环境水体中的实际质量浓度,客观评价化学品在环境中的分布及对环境和生物体造成的影响,文章综合了水环境相关的污染物毒性数据和化工园区背景资料, 确定了优先控制化学品清单,通过选取重庆长寿化工园区内及周边上下游8个采样点位进行监测分析,对该段长江水体中优先控制化学品进行风险评价.评价结果表明:化工园区内污水处理厂中的三氯甲烷、Zn、四氯化碳等污染物具有较高的生态风险,而周边长江江段水样中也发现Cr和Zn具有生态风险,研究结果可为下一步对园区污染物制定日常管理和风险防控提供研究基础和科学支撑.
  • 图  1  园区及附近长江段的监测布点图

    注:图内红色标注为具体采样点位置分布,红线为园区边线

    Figure  1.  The distribution of sampling points in the park and around the Yangtze River section

    图  2  本研究中化学品的生态风险评价体系

    Figure  2.  The chemical ecological risk assessment system in this study

    图  3  污水处理厂内排污口优控污染物的RQ值

    Figure  3.  The RQ value of priority-controlled chemicals in these sewage treatment plants

    图  4  污水处理厂外排污口及长江江段优控污染物的RQ值

    Figure  4.  The RQ value of priority-controlled chemicals in the Yangtze River section and outside the sewage treatment plants

    表  1  园区水环境优控污染物建议名单

    Table  1.   The recommended list of priority-controlled pollutants in water environment of park

    序号 污染物 CAS编号
    1 Pb 7439-92-1
    2 Ni 7440-02-0
    3 As 7440-38-2
    4 Cr 7440-47-3
    5 Zn 7440-66-6
    6 四氯化碳 56-23-5
    7 三氯甲烷 67-66-3
    8 六氯乙烷 67-72-1
    9 71-43-2
    10 三氯乙烷 71-55-6
    11 二氯甲烷 75-09-2
    12 三氯乙烯 79-01-6
    13 四氯乙烷 79-34-5
    14 硝基苯 98-95-3
    15 4-壬基酚 104-40-5
    16 对二氯苯 106-46-7
    17 二氯乙烷 107-06-2
    18 丙烯腈 107-13-1
    19 甲苯 108-88-3
    20 氯苯 108-90-7
    21 苯酚 108-95-2
    22 四氯乙烯 127-18-4
    23 二甲苯 1330-20-7
    注:CAS编号指化学物质登录号.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  园区监测点位信息

    Table  2.   The information of the sampling points in the park

    点位编号 监测点
    1# 长江上游背景断面
    2# 长江下游控制断面
    3# 中法水务污水处理厂内排污口
    4# 中法水务污水处理厂外排污口
    5# 川维污水处理厂内排污口
    6# 川维污水处理厂外排污口
    7# 重钢污水处理厂内排污口
    8# 重钢污水处理厂外排污口
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  水体样品的检测方法及检出限

    Table  3.   The detection method and limit of quantitation of water samples

    方法 测定指标 检出限/(mg·L-1)
    HJ 700-2014水质65种元素的测定电感耦合等离子体质谱法 Zn、Pb、Cr、Ni、As 0.001 0
    气相色谱质谱法USEPA 8270D-2007 六氯乙烷、硝基苯、苯酚 0.000 25
    二甲苯 0.000 6
    4-壬基酚 0.05
    气相色谱质谱法USEPA 8260C-2006 二氯甲烷、三氯甲烷、苯、甲苯、氯苯、对二氯苯、四氯化碳、三氯乙烯、四氯乙烯、二氯乙烷、三氯乙烷、四氯乙烷 0.000 3
    丙烯腈 0.000 5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  长江江段及园区污水处理厂特征污染物的平均质量浓度分布

    Table  4.   The concentration distribution of characteristic pollutants of the Yangtze River section and park sewage treatment plant μg/L

    化合物 1# 2# 3# 4# 5# 6# 7# 8#
    四氯化碳 nd nd 6.35 nd - - - -
    三氯乙烯 nd nd 4.95 nd - - - -
    1, 1, 2-三氯乙烷 nd nd 2.40 nd - - - -
    1, 1, 2, 2-四氯乙烷 nd nd 11.40 nd - - - -
    三氯甲烷 nd nd 108.0 1.1 - - - -
    苯酚 2.77 nd nd nd - - - -
    Cr 1.5 1.0 1.0 1.5 - - - -
    Ni nd 0.5 14.0 1.0 - - - -
    Pb 1.5 1.0 nd 1.5 - - - -
    Zn 5.0 3.0 48.0 11.0 164.0 6.5 - -
    注:nd表示低于检测限;“-”表示未检测.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  特征污染物的生态风险阀值(PNEC值)

    Table  5.   The ecological risk thresholds for characteristic pollutants(PNEC)

    化合物 评估因子 PNEC/(μg·L-1) 推导说明 来源
    四氯化碳 1 000 1.16 从急性毒性LC50推导 文献[12]
    三氯乙烯 1 000 43.40 从急性毒性LC50推导 文献[13]
    1, 1, 2-三氯乙烷 1 000 5.50 从急性毒性LC50推导 文献[14]
    1, 1, 2, 2-四氯乙烷 1 000 9.02 从急性毒性LC50推导 文献[15]
    三氯甲烷 1 000 4.16 从急性毒性LC50推导 文献[12]
    Cr 10 1.30 从慢性毒性NOEC推导+SSD方法 文献[16-17]
    Ni 1 17.20 从慢性毒性NOEC推导+SSD方法 文献[16-17]
    Pb 1 6.60 从慢性毒性NOEC推导+SSD方法 文献[16-17]
    Zn 2 7.80 从慢性毒性NOEC推导+SSD方法 文献[16-17]
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2019-05-22
  • 刊出日期:  2019-10-25

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