采用固相萃取-高分辨液相色谱-质谱(SPE-RRLC-MS/MS)技术，研究了广州市区5类典型排放源（市政污水处理厂、制药厂、医院、垃圾填埋场和畜牧养殖场）中41种目标抗生素的污染特征和去除效果. 结果表明，各类排放源中分别检出抗生素24种（市政污水处理厂）、14种（制药厂）、15种（医院）、12种（垃圾填埋场）和13种（畜牧养殖场），且5类典型排放源水相中质量浓度最高的物质分别为氧四环素（917 ng/L）、罗红霉素（127 g/L）、罗红霉素（11.8 g/L），脱水红霉素（3.61 g/L）和氧四环素（664 g/L）. 垃圾填埋场和畜牧养殖场的污水处理设施对抗生素总量具有较好的去除效果（去除率99.7%和99.5%），而污水处理厂、制药厂和医院对抗生素总量的去除能力较为一般（去除率49.3%、63.0%和26.9%）. 广州市区5类排放源以水相形式排入环境水体的抗生素总量为1.21 kg/d，人均贡献量为89.3 g/d. 各类典型排放源中未能完全去除的抗生素成为水环境中抗生素污染的重要来源之一.
Surveys concerning the occurrence and removal characteristics of 41 target antibiotics from 5 classes of typical emission sources (municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), pharmaceutical factory, hospital, landfill and livestock farm) in downtown Guangzhou were conducted. Antibiotics were identified and quantified using rapid resolution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) combined with solid-phase extraction (SPE) for pretreatment. The results showed that 24, 14, 15, 12 and 13 antibiotics were detected in WWTPs, pharmaceutical factories, hospitals, landfills and livestock farms, respectively, and the highest detected concentration of single antibiotic was 917 ng/L (oxytetracycline in WWTPs), 127 g/L (roxithromycin in pharmaceutical factories), 11.8 g/L (roxithromycin in hospitals), 3.61 g/L (erythromycin-H2O in landfills) and 664 g/L (oxytetracycline in livestock farms), respectively. Antibiotics were well removed in landfills and livestock farms with the total removal rate of 99.7% and 99.5%, and limited removed in WWTPs, pharmaceutical factories and hospitals with the total removal rate of 49.3%, 63.0% and 26.9%, respectively. The mass load and emission per capita of total antibiotics discharged into the environment in aquatic phase was 1.21 kg/d and 89.3 g/d in downtown Guangzhou, respectively. Incomplete removed antibiotics from typical emission sources constitute one of significant sources of antibiotic contamination in the aquatic environment.