阐述了新近发展起来的无损光学脑功能成像技术. 通过比较几种常用的脑成像技术, 论述了光学脑成像研究自闭儿童皮层活动的可行性和便利性. 总结了国内外迄今为止利用光学脑成像研究自闭症的初步进展. 最新实验研究表明具有较高自闭特质的儿童，在共同注意任务中其前额叶的血液动力学响应与正常儿童不同. 进一步利用光学脑成像研究脑皮层活动规律及其固有的特征，有望为儿童自闭症的早期诊断提供可靠的客观依据.
This work illustrates a newly developed non-invasive optical brain imaging. By comparision with commonly used brain imaging techniques, the feasibility and convenience are demonstrated for using optical brain imaging to investigate cortical activity for autistic children. Worldwide results on imaging autism with the optical technique are reviewed. Recent experimental data show that the hemodynamic responses in prefrontal cortex are different between children with autistic trait and normal controls in a task of the joint attention. Future comprehensive study with optical brain imaging on autistic brain activity and its inherent characteristics may provide reliable evidences for early autism diagnosis.