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珠江三角洲垃圾焚烧发电厂烟气污染物的呼吸暴露风险研究

黄道建 陈晓雯 蔡凤珊 许榕发 庄僖 于晓巍 钱益斌

黄道建, 陈晓雯, 蔡凤珊, 许榕发, 庄僖, 于晓巍, 钱益斌. 珠江三角洲垃圾焚烧发电厂烟气污染物的呼吸暴露风险研究[J]. 华南师范大学学报(自然科学版), 2020, 52(5): 41-48. doi: 10.6054/j.jscnun.2020076
引用本文: 黄道建, 陈晓雯, 蔡凤珊, 许榕发, 庄僖, 于晓巍, 钱益斌. 珠江三角洲垃圾焚烧发电厂烟气污染物的呼吸暴露风险研究[J]. 华南师范大学学报(自然科学版), 2020, 52(5): 41-48. doi: 10.6054/j.jscnun.2020076
HUANG Daojian, CHEN Xiaowen, CAI Fengshan, XU Rongfa, ZHUANG Xi, YU Xiaowei, QIAN Yibin. A Study of the Inhalation Exposure Risk of Pollutants in Flue Gas from Solid Waste Incineration Power Plants in the Pearl River Delta[J]. Journal of South China normal University (Natural Science Edition), 2020, 52(5): 41-48. doi: 10.6054/j.jscnun.2020076
Citation: HUANG Daojian, CHEN Xiaowen, CAI Fengshan, XU Rongfa, ZHUANG Xi, YU Xiaowei, QIAN Yibin. A Study of the Inhalation Exposure Risk of Pollutants in Flue Gas from Solid Waste Incineration Power Plants in the Pearl River Delta[J]. Journal of South China normal University (Natural Science Edition), 2020, 52(5): 41-48. doi: 10.6054/j.jscnun.2020076

珠江三角洲垃圾焚烧发电厂烟气污染物的呼吸暴露风险研究

doi: 10.6054/j.jscnun.2020076
基金项目: 

广东省科技计划项目 2014B020216006

详细信息
    通讯作者:

    钱益斌,高级工程师,Email:qianyb123@126.com

  • 中图分类号: X820.4

A Study of the Inhalation Exposure Risk of Pollutants in Flue Gas from Solid Waste Incineration Power Plants in the Pearl River Delta

  • 摘要: 以珠江三角洲中心地带的3座生活垃圾焚烧发电厂(MSWIPPs)为研究对象,利用大气扩散模型(AERMOD)模拟烟气特征污染物的扩散特性,研究了3座生活垃圾焚烧发电厂周边的大气污染现状,并应用美国环境保护署健康风险评价方法评估其对人体健康的影响.结果表明:3座生活垃圾焚烧发电厂的烟气中颗粒物(PM10、PM2.5)、HCl、NOx、SO2、Pb、Cd、Cr和PCDD/Fs(二噁英)等的年平均排放质量浓度范围为1.98×10-9~93.87 mg/m3,预测周边环境大气中各污染物的全时段平均质量浓度范围为5.00×10-14~1.49×10-3 mg/m3,均远低于评价标准限值.呼吸暴露健康风险评价结果显示:HCl、NOx、SO2和Pb对人群产生的非致癌风险范围为2.71×10-7~1.38×10-2,Cd、Cr和PCDD/Fs的致癌风险范围为7.12×10-10~2.04×10-5,均处于可接受范围.在成人群体中,所有烟气特征污染物对男性造成的健康风险普遍高于女性,在儿童群体中则相反;儿童的非致癌和致癌风险均明显高于成人.在3座生活垃圾焚烧发电厂的下风向均分布有小学、幼儿园等,建议根据人群分布、风向变化、春夏季节更替等特点做出相应的防护措施,最大程度地保障项目周边环境的空气质量和敏感人群的身体健康.
  • 表  1  各生活垃圾焚烧发电厂烟气的预测源强

    Table  1.   The sources of smoke prediction for each municipal solid waste incineration plant

    发电厂 烟气流量/(m3·h-1) 排放速率/(kg·h-1)
    PM10 PM2.5 HCl NOx SO2 Pb Cd Cr PCDD/Fs
    厂1 252 298 0.92 0.46 1.77 19.44 1.89 0.26×10-3 0.50×10-3
    厂1 177 433 0.72 0.36 1.36 16.12 1.34 0.18×10-3 0.36×10-3
    厂1 250 737 1.01 0.51 2.36 22.63 1.88 0.25×10-3 0.61×10-3 0.15×10-8
    厂2 211 953 2.05 1.03 1.45 29.25 0.48 0.21×10-2 0.90×10-3 0.43×10-5
    厂3 285 576 0.60 0.30 0.65 29.39 0.43 0.29×10-3 1.14×10-4 1.21×10-3 0.10×10-4
    注:“—”表示数据缺省;厂1有3个烟囱.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  环境空气质量评价的执行标准

    Table  2.   The implementation standards for ambient air quality

    污染物名称 污染物质量浓度限值/(μg·m-3)
    1 h均值 24 h均值 年均值
    PM10 50 40
    PM2.5 35 15
    NOx 250 100 50
    SO2 150 50 20
    Pb 0.5
    Cd 0.005
    HCl 50 15
    PCDD/Fs 0.6
    注:“—”表示数据缺省.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同人群的呼吸暴露参数

    Table  3.   The implementation standards for ambient air quality

    人群 IR/(m3·d-1) EF/(d·a-1) ED/a BW/kg AT/a
    成人(男) 18.00 350 30 65.0 72.4
    成人(女) 14.50 350 30 56.8 77.4
    儿童(男) 5.71 350 6 20.8 6.0
    儿童(女) 5.58 350 6 19.9 6.0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  污染物的毒性参数

    Table  4.   The toxic parameters of pollutants

    非致癌污染物 RfD/(mg·kg-1·d-1) 致癌污染物 SF/(kg·d·mg-1)
    NOx 0.029 0 Cd 6.3
    SO2 0.023 0 Cr 42.0
    Pb 0.003 5 PCDD/Fs 1.5×10-5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  烟气污染物全时段平均质量浓度的预测结果

    Table  5.   The prediction of average full-time concentration of flue gas mg/m3

    污染物 厂1 厂2 厂3
    PM2.5 1.05×10-5 1.49×10-5 1.52×10-5
    SO2 6.06×10-5 6.96×10-6 2.18×10-5
    NOx 6.93×10-4 4.24×10-5 1.49×10-3
    Pb 1.00×10-8 3.00×10-8 1.00×10-8
    Cr 2.00×10-8 1.00×10-8 6.00×10-8
    Cd 1.00×10-8
    HCl 6.48×10-5 2.10×10-5 3.29×10-5
    PCDD/Fs* 5.00×10-14 6.00×10-11 5.07×10-10
    注:“—”表示数据缺省.*单位为mg TEQ/m3, 表 7同.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  生活垃圾焚烧发电厂周边人群的烟气特征污染物呼吸暴露量和呼吸暴露风险

    Table  6.   The inhalation exposure and risks of pollutants of municipal solid waste incineration plants to the residents

    项目 每日呼吸暴露量/(mg·kg-1·d-1) 非致癌风险(CR) 致癌风险(HQ)
    NOx SO2 Hl Cr Cd Pb PCDD/Fs NOx SO2 HCl Pb Cd Cr PCDD/Fs
    厂1成人(男) 7.63×10-5 6.67×10-6 2.20×10-9 1.10×10-9 5.50×10-15 2.63×10-3 2.90×10-4 3.24 ×10-3 3.14×10-7 9.24×10-7 8.25×10-10
    厂1成人(女) 6.58×10-5 5.75×10-6 1.90×10-9 9.49×10-10 4.74×10-15 2.27×10-3 2.50×10-4 2.71×10-7 7.97×10-8 7.12×10-10
    厂1儿童(男) 1.82×10-4 1.60×10-5 5.26×10-9 2.63×10-9 1.32×10-14 6.29×10-3 6.94×10-4 7.52×10-7 2.21×10-7 1.97×10-9
    厂1儿童(女) 1.86×10-4 1.63×10-5 5.38×10-9 2.69×10-9 1.34×10-14 6.43×10-3 7.08×10-4 7.68×10-7 2.26×10-7 2.02×10-9
    厂2成人(男) 4.67×10-5 7.66×10-7 1.10×10-9 3.30×10-9 6.60×10-12 1.61×10-3 3.33×10-5 1.05 ×10-3 9.43×10-7 4.62×10-8 9.90×10-7
    厂2成人(女) 4.02×10-5 6.60×10-7 9.49×10-10 2.85×10-9 5.69×10-12 1.39×10-3 2.87×10-5 8.13×10-7 3.98×10-8 8.54×10-7
    厂2儿童(男) 1.12×10-4 1.83×10-6 2.63×10-9 7.90×10-9 1.58×10-11 3.85×10-3 7.97×10-5 2.26×10-6 1.11×10-7 2.37×10-6
    厂2儿童(女) 1.14×10-4 1.87×10-6 2.69×10-9 8.07×10-9 1.61×10-11 3.93×10-3 8.14×10-5 2.30×10-6 1.13×10-7 2.42×10-6
    厂3成人(男) 1.64×10-4 2.40×10-6 6.60×10-9 1.10×10-9 1.10×10-9 5.58×10-11 5.65×10-3 1.04×10-4 1.65×10-3 3.14×10-7 6.93×10-9 2.77×10-7 8.37×10-6
    厂3成人(女) 1.41×10-4 2.07×10-6 5.69×10-9 9.49×10-10 9.49×10-10 4.81×10-11 4.87×10-3 8.99×10-5 2.71×10-7 5.98×10-9 2.39×10-7 7.22×10-6
    厂3儿童(男) 3.92×10-4 5.74×10-6 1.58×10-8 2.63×10-9 2.63×10-9 1.33×10-10 1.35×10-2 2.50×10-4 7.52×10-7 1.66×10-9 6.63×10-7 2.00×10-5
    厂3儿童(女) 4.01×10-4 5.86×10-6 1.61×10-8 2.69×10-9 2.69×10-9 1.36×10-10 1.38×10-2 2.55×10-4 7.68×10-7 1.69×10-7 6.78×10-9 2.04×10-5
    注:“—”表示数据缺省.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  生活垃圾焚烧发电厂烟气污染物的年平均排放质量浓度

    Table  7.   The average annual concentration of pollutants in the flue gas from municipal solid waste incineration plants mg/m3

    污染物 厂1 厂2 厂3
    HCl 8.84 8.58 1.27
    NOx 93.87 142.00 43.85
    SO2 8.17 2.22 0.63
    Pb 1.08×10-3 9.97×10-3 2.60×10-2
    Cd 4.40×10-4 4.60×10-4 1.68×10-4
    Cr 2.02×10-3 5.27×10-3 2.20×10-3
    PCDD/Fs 1.98×10-9 1.90×10-8 1.19×10-8
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-04-28
  • 刊出日期:  2020-10-25

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